Axis

Axis is the second cervical vertebra that together with the first one — atlas — provide about 60% of the total axial rotation of cervical spine*.


  • * Panjabi MM, Dvorak J et al. Three dimensional movements of the upper cervical spine. In: Baumann JU, Herron RE, eds. Vol 1030. SPIE; 1988:370-378.

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    Anterior view of axis Markup for anterior view of axis
    Axis. Anterior aspect. Most prominent feature of that vertebra is the teeth-shaped process — dens axis.
    The list of terms: Corpus vertebrae – Body of vertebra
    Dens axis – Dens of axis
    Apex Dentis – Apex of dens
    Facies articularis anterior – Anteriror articular surface of dens
    Processus articularis superior – Superior articular process
    Processus articularis inferior – Inferior articular process
    Processus transversus – Transverse process

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    Top view of axis Markup for top view of axis
    Axis. Superior aspect. Another feature of this vertebra is the convex shape of the articular surface of processus articularis superior which is not congruent to the adjacent articular surface of axis, allowing some lateral bending and flexion-extension movements between atlas and axis*.
    The list of terms: Corpus vertebrae – Body of vertebra
    Dens axis – Dens of axis
    Arcus vertebrae – Vertebral arch
    Lamina arcus vertebrae – Lamina of vertebral arch
    Foramen vertebrale – Vertebral foramen
    Apex Dentis – Apex of dens
    Facies articularis anterior – Anterior articular surface of dens
    Processus articularis superior – Superior articular process
    Processus articularis inferior – Inferior articular process
    Processus spinosus – Spinous process
    Processus transversus – Trnasverse process

  • *Zhao X, Wu Z et al. Three-dimensional analysis of cervical spine segmental motion in rotation. Arch Med Sci, 2013;9(3):515–520.

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    Side view of axis Markup for side view of axis
    Axis. Lateral aspect. Compared with other cervical vertebra, axis has two additional articulation surfaces on both sides of dens axisfacies articularis anterior & posterior.
    The list of terms: Corpus vertebrae – Body of vertebra
    Dens axis – Dens of axis
    Apex Dentis – Apex of dens
    Lamina arcus vertebrae – Lamina of vertebral arch
    Processus articularis superior – Superior articular process
    Processus articularis inferior – Inferior articular process
    Processus spinosus – Spinous process
    Processus transversus – Transverse process

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    Iso view of axis. Markup for iso view of axis
    Axis. Isometric aspect.
    The list of terms: Corpus vertebrae – Body of vertebra
    Dens axis – Dens of axis
    Apex Dentis – Apex of dens
    Facies articularis anterior – Anterior articular surface of dens
    Facies articularis posterior – Posterior articular surface of dens
    Arcus vertebrae – Vertebral arch
    Processus articularis superior – Superior articular process
    Processus transversus – Transverse process
    Foramen transversarium

    Axis. 360° rotation.